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Showing posts with label Pakistan. Show all posts

Thursday, 3 October 2013

Factors Affecting Women Participation in the Labor Force of Pakistan

Main concepts: Labor force, Labor force participation and developing countries
Labor force: The total number of People employed or seeking employment in a country or region also called work force.
Labor force participation: Measures the proportion(women) of a specific population (15 and above) considered to be either working or actively searching for a job.
Developing countries: A developing country, also called a less-developed country (LDC), is a nation with a low living standard, underdeveloped industrial base, and low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

Women Participation in the Labor Force of Pakistan

Women Participation in the Labor Force of Pakistan Women participation in the labor force in Pakistan has remained substantially lower than that of men’s in the world. However, women participation rate is high and gender gap low in many developing countries, because mostly women are involved in unpaid subsistence farming, and only a few are involved in other paid economic activities. In Pakistan, female labor force participation has risen at a greater rate than that of men since 1980. Pakistan average annual growth rate of FLFP was 4 percent in 1980 90, 4.9 percent in 1990-95 and 5.1 percent in 1995-98, whereas the growth rate of male labor force declined from 3.2 percent in 1980-90 to 2.5 percent in 1990-95 and 2.7 percent in 1995-98. Compared to other South Asian countries, FLFP rate is low in Pakistan. For example, FLFP rate is over 40 percent in Bangladesh and Nepal, 32 percent in India and Bhutan, 36 percent in SriLanka and only 27 percent in Pakistan (World Bank and UNDP).Pakistan being characterized as a developing country has a low incidence of women labor force participation compared to other low income countries. Even though women work from dawn to dusk performing household chores, yet their hard work is considered non-productive and go unrecorded in the respective system of national accounts, thereby making very less or no contribution to the socio-economic development in Pakistan. In Pakistan women, participation in the labor force remains low, merely because women are expected to perform household chores for example cleaning, cooking and taking care of children.
 Labour supply is not only a key component of socio-economic development, yet is an important factor for the advancement of women. Since in Pakistan half of the total population comprises of females, women participation in the labor force is an important factor determining the level of development. Pakistan comprises of a major chunk of female population, so them being jobless indicates a higher unemployment level in the country which defeats the purpose to develop. Also, there are certain industries such as clothing where women have broader spectrum and varied skills so they must be employed in accordance to their capabilities so that there is decreased opportunity cost of production. Participation of women in Pakistan can easily be increased in cottage industries due to our cultural and traditional skills. The participation of female labor force is desirable for both equity and efficiency reasons. Equity aspect shows that women’s participation in the labor force ultimately improves their relative economic position and increases the overall economic efficiency by enhancing the development potential of the country. In Pakistan, women are mostly unpaid family workers in the agriculture sector. However as their education improves so do their opportunities in the manufacturing and services sector. Moreover, to overcome severe economic crisis, women must be encouraged to actively participate in economic activities. Also a greater proportion of income earned by women themselves is used on the up-bringing of their children, providing them with quality education.

Factors of Labor Supply

Factors shaping the labor supply decisions of women in Pakistan include the following: Education, marital status, family size, households financial status and mobility of labor. All these explanatory variables can be better described and analysed by dividing them in various groups. First one being the women characteristics, including age of women, completed level of education, training/skills and marital status. Second is the household’s characteristics which might play a critical role in the decision making process and participation of women in economic activities. This includes whether the woman is the head of the household, the number of pre-school age children in the house, the type of family arrangement ( joint or nuclear), total members living in the house (male and female). Third is the financial status of the household based on the monthly expenditure. Last but not the least mobility of labor (occupational and geographical). A detailed in-depth study of the above factors will help give a clear picture of women participation in the labour force in Pakistan.
Women’s age positively influences the possibility of their involvement in economic activity. The more experienced and skilled they are, the more likely they are to participate in labor force. At the individual level women’s decision to work is subject to such factors as the availability of jobs, education level and skills. Human capital such as experience and job-training enhance productivity providing many job opportunities. Education is an important factor affecting women’s decision of labour force participation. Education qualifications enhance job prospects for all individuals and women, making certain jobs more easily available to them.Thus career oriented women with quality education are more likely to participate in labor force. On the other hand, married women are less likely to participate in economic activities. The opposite is true for the widow or divorced women.
Household characteristics play important role in determining women participation in the labour force. In households with illiterate male members, women are more likely to participate in economic activities or are forced to participate to support the family financially. Women’s participation increases if the male members of the household have low human capital. With an increase in number of pre-school children, women are less likely to participate. As the reproductive responsibilities in the home increases, women are most likely to postpone or abdicate participation in economic activities so that there is no hindrance in the up-bringing of children. In addition to this an increased number of family members of the households require women too to actively participate in economic activities to help male members support the family.
The economic status of household is another factor indicating the need for additional economic resources in the household. When the household heads are male employer or employee, women are less likely to participate in economic activities. However, with unpaid family members and male head of the household, women are more likely to participate.
Mobility of labor including both occupational and geographical factors also helps in determining the women participation in the labor force of Pakistan. Lack of information of job opportunities and unwillingness of women to move to another area for work reduces women participation in the labor force of Pakistan.
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Tuesday, 2 July 2013

1 million pounds, diamonds and jewelry confiscated from Altaf Hussain by Police - Latest London News

Latest news from London - Law in Action

Latest news from London suggest that Altaf Hussain is in deep trouble. Critical evidence against MQM leader Altaf Hussain has been collected by London Metropolitan police. The Police has now have hold over important documents, 1 million pounds in cash, millions of dollars worth of jewelry and diamonds.
Days earlier, Scotland Yard and London Metropolitan police raided Altaf Hussain's personal residence and evidence were collected there and then. Now, the reports suggest that the Police is in the position to take serious action against the Mutahidda Qaumi Movement Quaid. One of Altaf's closest allies, his cousin Iftikhar Hussain was also arrested from the Heathrow Air Port

Further reports suggest that two former leaders of MQM have been aiding the Scotland Yard and the London Police in the investigations. Police are now investigating where the one million pounds, diamonds and jewelry come from? Another important thing to notice is that the MQM chief heavily criticised the British government when the British Prime Minister made his visit to Pakistan in which he declared the enemies of Pakistan were the enemies of United Kingdom.
Altaf Hussain in trouble
Altaf Hussain in trouble
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Thursday, 13 June 2013

Agreement between India and Pakistan to solve energy crisis

A consensus has been reached between Pakistan and India for sorting out the energy crises of Pakistan.
Agreement between India and Pakistan to solve energy crisis

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Friday, 21 December 2012

Indian culture in Pakistan - Cultural Blues

While searching for my discussion topic which talked about the cultural invasion of Pakistan by India, I was not very impressed by the material present on the internet.  There was one perspective that talked about increasing globalization and there was another point of view stating that yes we are invaded by the Indian media from every corner etc. 

I appreciate good music, fashion trends and fine entertainment even if its coming from across the borders and so do a lot of people who know how to distinguish between what is wrong and right.

We ridicule our Lollywood actresses be it Veena malik , Meera or singers who have gone across borders to earn a livelihood and get some  recognition of their own.  Unless Pakistan does not officially send these people , they are not representing our country.  They have their identity of their own. But we as a nation believe that if our star achieves something amazing  we like to take all the credit and when he does something not acceptable to us we refuse to even acknowledge the fact that they  were once part of us. Not forgetting random people asking Pakistani government to ban these people from coming to the country? Really? Why?  If you ask these people, they bring the religion in between.   Why doesn't religion come between in discussion when there is talk about corrupt leaders or political instability, or when there are acid attacks on our women? Why does religion only come in the discussion when the entertainment industry is discussed? 

Pakistani youth is strong and we have a Voice. We are educated and We know what we want in our lives. No nation is invading any other country.  Media is a free.  Pakistan drama industry is booming and so is the theater  I know a lot of my friends who are part of the theatrical scene in Pakistan and some of them are aspiring directors.  Today a Pakistani believes that if its own product will be upto the standard there is no way any other country can culturally invade us. Thanks to Humsafar – a massive achievement which made every Pakistani believe that our stuff is all quality.
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Thursday, 22 March 2012

Bengal Tigers - Winner of our Hearts 2012 - Hijab Tariq

This Post is to appreciate Bangladesh Cricket team performance in the finals with Pakistan, Asia cup 2012. Although Pakistan won and I myself being a Pakistani for the first time in my cricket watching period never wished so bad for another team to win.

Pakistani cricket fans will kill me for this but what a splendid performance by Bangladesh. They have improved like anything during this tournament. They did not only kicked India out of the finals by beating Siri Lanka but they also gave Pakistan tough time during the finals.
 I won’t go into details because I am sure if u had watched the cricket match you would have known that Pakistan lost its toss and Bangladesh chose to ball.  Bangladesh team was so organized during their bowling action that when Pakistani players started to get out one by one it was a tremendous sight to see.
 Bangladesh has won my heart. I am a Pakistani but if Bangladesh had won the match, it would have been a win of Cricket.  Cricket is all about Hard work, commitment and passion. What an awesome game it was. Bangladesh had to chase a score of 237 within 50 overs. The had chased a larger score when they were playing against India so I knew it wouldn’t be that hard for them.

Pakistani team as usual had miserable fielding on the field. I have no idea when this team will actually learn to play cricket. No sane team can ever play a final match like this.

Anyway, I hear fireworks outside my home now.  Everyone is celebrating Pakistan’s win but  Bangladesh you have won hearts of many. I believe you people are an inspiration to all cricket teams. What a great match. Nail biting till the last ball.

I am reading a lot of statuses on Facebook right now and people here in Pakistan believe that today for the first time we don’t feel that happy on Pakistan’s win because we know our team was pretty bad and this win was only for Bangladesh.

Hope Bangladesh team  continues to play like this and makes their country proud. They are a lot of trophies waiting for you. This Asia cup is nothing.
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